“Newton told us only two things about the nature of forces. In the case of gravitation, he gave us the complete law of the force. In the case of the very complicated forces between atoms, he was not aware of the right laws for the forces; however, he discovered one rule, one general property of forces, which is expressed in his Third Law, and that is the total knowledge that Newton had about the nature of forces—the law of gravitation and this principle, but no other details.
This principle is that action equals reaction.
What is meant is something of this kind: Suppose we have two small bodies, say particles, and suppose that the first one exerts a force on the second one, pushing it with a certain force. Then, simultaneously, according to Newton’s Third Law, the second particle wnill push on the first with an equal force, in the opposite direction; furthermore, these forces effectively act in the same line. This is the hypothesis, or law, that Newton proposed, and it seems to be quite accurate, though not exact (we shall discuss the errors later). ” 你也可看https://www.wired.com/ 的A Closer Look at Newton’s Third Law
“————–Let me make something clear. Isaac Newton had it tough. Here he is trying to make a model that describes what forces do to objects. However, he just doesn’t have all the words we have – like momentum, acceleration, velocity.Fortunately, there is an online translation of the original works of Newton. Here is an older translation into English of Newton’s The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (volume 1).The part about the Third Law says:To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.He also writes: If you press a stone with your finger, the finger is also pressed by the stone.This above example could indicate that he did not mean the stone and the finger have to move. I would suggest that perhaps Newton meant the word “action” to really mean “force”. However, he later uses the word force so I’m not exactly sure of his intentions. Perhaps by “action” he means a force that actually does something. I don’t know.Oh, and it seems Newton does use the words momentum and velocity (if you read more of the passage). Maybe he was just trying to be poetic with his use of the words “action” and “reaction”.”
Chinese version published in 《Technology Innovation and Application/科技创新与应用》ISSN 2095-2945, 12th edition, page 69-70 , April 28 2020
The objectives to study planetary gear set often are to find torque ratio and velocity ratio between input and output shaft. This paper aims to achieve these objectives by develop a new method which is kinetics method in compare to traditional kinematics or tabular method. This new method is direct and easy method, developed to study single stage planetary gear set in steady and unsteady state by first establishes the principle of force transfer at contact point between a pair of rotating cylinders. In others words the established principle described the power flow from one rotating cylinder to another by elaborates the force transfer mechanism at contact point between the rotating cylinders. By relying on the established principle, the model of force transfer in single stage planetary gear set for various arrangements could be derived. From the force transfer model of selected planetary gear set arrangement, the force transferred to output shaft of planetary gear set is shown in the free body diagram, hence the output torque could be directly obtained. The power at input and output shaft is a constant, which is equivalent to product of torque and angular velocity. By knowing the torque at output shaft, the angular velocity of output shaft then could be found.
Conventional approach in study planetary gear set is using tabular method. The objective of this paper is to develop a direct method to obtain torque ratio & velocity ratio of input & output shaft of single stage planetary gear set in steady and unsteady state. First the underlying principle of force transfer at contact point in between a pair of rotating cylinders is established, follow by building the model of force transfer for two different arrangements of the planetary gear set. Then the method in finding the torque ratio for the respective arrangement of planetary gear set is described and explained in logically and easy to understand manner.
wout Output angular velocity
win Input angular velocity
Ft Tangential force
Ftr Transfer force
Ff Friction force
Fre Reaction force
N Normal force
µ Coefficient of friction
Fpt Planet gear tangential force
Fret Tangential component of reaction force
Tin Input torque
To Output torque
rp Radius of planet gear
rs Radius of sun gear
rc Radius of carrier shaft
Fc Carrier shaft tangential force
3. Underlying Principle
The dynamics at contact point of a pair of rotating cylinders used to transfer force from a rotating cylinder to another is studied and a model is developed. It is the underlying principle to study planetary gear set in both steady and unsteady state.
Fig. 1: Model of transfer force from a rotating cylinder to another
Tangential force, Ft responsible to rotate the cylinder B. If the tangential force, Ft is larger than friction force, Ff , the slip condition occurred. Gear set is used in such condition to avoid slippage.
3.1 Single Stage Planetary Gear Set Arrangement 1
Ring gear : Fixed
Carrier : Output
Sun gear : Input
The established model to show the force interaction of the above arrangement as in Fig. 2 below.
Fig, 2: Model of force transfer of single stage planetary gear set arrangement 1
The Ftr could be decomposed into X-Y direction components as illustrate in Fig. 3 below.
Fig. 3: X-Y directions components of transfer force, Ftr
The Fpt acted on fixed ring resulted a reaction force, Fre on planet gear. The reaction force, Fre could decompose into XY direction components as illustrate in Fig. 4 below.
Fig. 4: X-Y directions components of reaction force, Fre
Input torque calculated as Fig. 5 below.
Fig. 5: Illustration of input torque
Input torque, 𝑇in=𝐹tr . 𝑟s (1)
Output torque at carrier is calculated as Fig. 6 below.
Fig. 6: Illustration of output torque
Output torque, To=Fret . ( 2rp+rs) (2)
(2rp+rs) is radius of ring gear, therefore torque ratio is simply the ring gear size divide by sun gear size. This finding is matching with the illustration of a gear manufacturer “wittenstein” in the video “Made simple：Design and operating principle of a low-backlash planetary gearbox” (1: 21 ~1:26).
Angular velocity ratio simply is the reciprocal of torque ratio.
For the example in which the planet gear size is equal to sun gear,
3.2 Single Stage Planetary Gear Set Arrangement 2
Ring gear : Output
Carrier : Input
Sun gear : Fixed
The model established to show the force interaction of the above arrangement as in Fig. 7 below.
Fig. 7: Model of force transfer of single stage planetary gear set arrangement 2
When the carrier rotated, Ftr is distributed to sun and ring gear as shown in Fig. 7. Ftr acted on fixed sun gear resulted a reaction force, Fre , this reaction force shall acts on ring gear. This means transfer force, Ftr generated by carrier finally caused the ring gear to rotate. By neglecting the friction force
The torque ratio of planetary gear set could easily be found by establish a model of force transfer for the selected arrangement of the planetary gear set based on the underlying principle described in this paper.
 Norton, Design of Machinery (2004), pp.495-499, McGraw-Hill.